Dr. Harm Brouwer


2018- | PI in SFB1102: Information Density and Linguistic Encoding (IDeaL)
Saarland University

2016- | Scientific Staff (Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter)
Psycholinguistics, Department of Language Science and Technology (FR 4.70) , Saarland University

2014-2016 | Marie Curie "Experienced Researcher" Fellow
LanPercept, Saarland University

2010-2014 | PhD in Cognitive Science (cum laude—highest possible distinction)
NWO, CLCG, BCN, University of Groningen

2008-2010 | MSc in Behavioural and Cognitive Neurosciences (cum laude—highest possible distinction)
BCN, University of Groningen

2005-2008 | BA in Information Science (cum laude—highest possible distinction)
CLCG, University of Groningen

Email: me[at]hbrouwer.eu

Work address: Psycholinguistics, Department of Language Science and Technology (FR 4.70)
Saarland University, Building 7.1, Room 1.20; Phone: +49 681 302 6554

honours and awards

2015 Robert J. Glushko Prize for outstanding dissertation in cognitive science.

latest updates

27.11.2019 | New paper: Semantic Entropy in Language Comprehension (Entropy)

24.06.2019 | New paper: A Framework for Distributional Formal Semantics (WoLLIC 2019)

13.06.2019 | New paper: Event-related potentials index lexical retrieval (N400) and integration (P600) during language comprehension (Brain and Cognition)

11.06.2019 | New software: Distributional Formal Semantics (DFS) Tools


submitted or under revision

Brouwer, H., Delogu, F., and Crocker, M. W. (submitted). Splitting Event-Related Potentials: Modeling Latent Components using Regression-based Waveform Estimation. Psychophysiology.

Venhuizen, N. J., Hendriks, P., Crocker, M. W., and Brouwer, H. (submitted). Distributional Formal Semantics. Information and Computation.

journal articles

Venhuizen, N. J., Crocker, M. W., and Brouwer, H. (2019). Semantic Entropy in Language Comprehension. Entropy, 21(12), 1159. doi: 10.3390/e21121159 [pdf]

Delogu, F., Brouwer, H., and Crocker, M. W. (2019). Event-related potentials index lexical retrieval (N400) and integration (P600) during language comprehension. Brain and Cognition, 135. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2019.05.007 [pdf]

Venhuizen, N. J., Crocker, M. W., and Brouwer, H. (2019). Expectation-based Comprehension: Modeling the interaction of world knowledge and linguistic experience. Discourse Processes, 56:3, pp. 229-255. doi: 10.1080/0163853X.2018.1448677 [pdf]

Venhuizen, N. J., Bos, J., Hendriks, P. and Brouwer, H. (2018). Discourse Semantics with Information Structure. Journal of Semantics, 35(1), pp. 127-169. doi: 10.1093/jos/ffx017 [pdf]

Khachatryan, E., Brouwer, H., Staljanssens, W., Carrette, E., Meurs, A., Boon, P., Van Roost, D., and Van Hulle, M. (2018). A New Insight into Sentence Comprehension: the Impact of Word Associations in Sentence Processing as Shown by Invasive EEG Recording. Neuropsychologia, 108, pp. 103-116. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.12.002 [pdf]

Brouwer, H. and Crocker, M. W. (2017). On the proper treatment of the N400 and P600 in language comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology 8:1327. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01327 [pdf]

Brouwer, H., Crocker M. W., Venhuizen, N. J., and Hoeks, J. C. J. (2017). A Neurocomputational Model of the N400 and the P600 in Language Processing. Cognitive Science, 41(S6), pp. 1318-1352. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12461 [pdf] [supporting information]

Brouwer, H. and Crocker, M. W. (2016). On the Organization of the Perisylvian Cortex: Insights from the Electrophysiology of Language. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by M.A. Arbib. Physics of Life Reviews, 16, pp. 58-60. doi: 10.1016/j.plrev.2015.12.006 [pdf]

Brouwer, H. and Hoeks J. C. J. (2013). A Time and Place for Language Comprehension: Mapping the N400 and the P600 to a Minimal Cortical Network. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:758. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00758 [pdf]

Hoeks, J. C. J., Stowe, L. A., Hendriks, P. and Brouwer, H. (2013). Questions left unanswered: How the brain responds to missing information. PLoS ONE, 8(10): e73594. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073594 [pdf] [materials]

Brouwer, H., Fitz, H. and Hoeks, J. C. J. (2012). Getting real about Semantic Illusions: Rethinking the functional role of the P600 in language comprehension. Brain Research, 1446, pp. 127-143. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.01.055 [pdf]

book chapters

Brouwer, H., Crocker, M. W., and Venhuizen, N. J. (2017). Neural Semantics. In: Wieling, M., Kroon, M., Van Noord, G., and Bouma, G. (Eds.), From Semantics to Dialectometry: Festschrift for John Nerbonne, pp. 75-83. College Publications.

Hoeks, J. C. J. and Brouwer, H. (2014). Electrophysiological Research on Conversation and Discourse Processing. In: Holtgraves, T. (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Language and Social Psychology, pp. 365-386. New York: Oxford University Press. [pdf]

conference papers

Venhuizen, N. J., Hendriks, P., Crocker, M. W., and Brouwer, H. (2019). A Framework for Distributional Formal Semantics. In: Iemhoff, R., Moortgat, M., and de Queiroz, R. (Eds.), Logic, Language, Information, and Computation, Proceedings of the 26th International Workshop WoLLIC 2019, LNCS 11541, pp. 633-646. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-59533-6_39 [pdf]

Calvillo, J., Brouwer, H. and Crocker, M. W. (2016). Connectionist Semantic Systematicity in Language Production. In: Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 2555-2560, August 10-13, Philadelphia, United States.

Venhuizen, N. J., Bos, J., Hendriks, P. and Brouwer, H. (2014). How and Why Conventional Implicatures Project. In: Proceedings of the 24rd Semantics and Linguistics Theory Conference (SALT24), pp. 63-83, May 30-June 1, New York, United States.

Venhuizen, N. J. and Brouwer, H. (2014). PDRT-SANDBOX: An implementation of Projective Discourse Representation Theory. In: Rieser, V. and Muller, P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 18th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue, SemDial 2014 - DialWatt, pp. 249-251, September 1-3, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Venhuizen, N. J., Bos, J. and Brouwer, H. (2013). Parsimonious Semantic Representations with Projection Pointers. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS'13), March 19-22, Potsdam, Germany.

Brouwer, H., Fitz, H. and Hoeks, J. C. J. (2010). Modeling the noun phrase versus sentence coordination ambiguity in Dutch: Evidence from Surprisal Theory. In: Hale, J. H. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2010 Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics, ACL2010, pp. 72-80, Uppsala, Sweden, 15 July 2010.

phd thesis

Brouwer, H. (2014). The Electrophysiology of Language Comprehension: A Neurocomputational Model. PhD thesis, University of Groningen. [pdf] [propositions] [précis]

Supervisors: prof. dr. J. C. J. Hoeks, prof. dr. ir. J. Nerbonne; Reading committee: prof. dr. P. Hendriks, prof. dr. M. Kutas, prof. dr. D. C. Plaut; Extended reading committee: prof. dr. J. J. A. van Berkum, prof. dr. G. R. Kuperberg

talks and posters

My resume contains a full list of talks and posters—send me an email to obtain a copy.

Some slides and posters can also be found on ResearchGate.



MESH: An artificial neural network simulator.

COALS: Implementation of the Correlated Occurrence Analogue to Lexical Semantics.

PDRT-SANDBOX: A Haskell library implementing (Projective) Discourse Representation Theory.

DFS Tools: Distributional Formal Semantics (DFS) tools.


LensOSX: A native MacOSX port of Lens, the light, efficient network simulator.

OSXtlearn: xtlearn wrapped in a MacOSX application bundle.



Semantic Theory, Summer 2020 (with Noortje J. Venhuizen)


Neurocognition of Language, Winter 2019/20.

recent past

Semantic Theory, Summer 2019 (with Noortje J. Venhuizen)

Connectionist Language Processing, Summer 2019 (with Matthew W. Crocker)